Wednesday, April 4, 2012

Tafseer: {Why should Allaah punish you if you are grateful and have believed in Him?}


بسم الله والحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله ، وبعد

A tafseer by Ibn Katheer, al-Qurtobee, al-Baghawee and al-Sa`dee رحمهم الله جميعا on the saying of Allaah تعالى:

{يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَتَّخِذُوا الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَنْ تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُبِينًا (144) إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا (145) إِلا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِاللَّهِ وَأَخْلَصُوا دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ فَأُولَئِكَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا (146) مَا يَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمْ إِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ وَآمَنْتُمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمًا (147)}

{O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as friends instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allaah a manifest Sultan against yourselves? Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the Fire; no helper will you find for them. Except those who repent, do righteous good deeds, depend on Allaah, and purify their religion for Allaah, then they will be with the believers. And Allaah will grant the believers a great reward. Why should Allaah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him? And Allaah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.} [Surah al-Nisaa’ (4): 144-147]


Ibn Katheer رحمه الله:

Allaah تعالى forbids His believing servants from taking the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers. This includes being friends and associates of the disbelievers, advising them (in worldly affairs), being intimate with them and exposing the secrets of the believers to them.

In another Aayah, Allaah تعالى said:

{لا يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَيْءٍ إِلا أَنْ تَتَّقُوا مِنْهُمْ تُقَاةً وَيُحَذِّرُكُمُ اللَّهُ نَفْسَهُ} [آل عمران: 28]

{Let not the believers take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that, will never be helped by Allaah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allaah warns you against Himself}. [Surah aal-`Imraan (3):28] meaning, He warns you against His punishment if you fall into what He has prohibited.

This is why Allaah تعالى said here:

{ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَنْ تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُبِينًا}

{Do you wish to offer Allaah a manifest Sultan against yourselves} meaning, proof against you that warrants receiving His torment.

Ibn Abi Haatim narrated from his father, that Maalik ibn Ismaa`eel narrated that Sufyaan ibn `Uyaynaa reported on the authority of `Amr bin Deenaar, on the authority of `Ikrimah, that Ibn `Abbaas commented: {manifest Sultan}, “The word Sultan in the Qur’aan means proof.” And this chain of narration is authentic.

This is also the saying of Mujaahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`eed bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazhi, al-Dahhaak, al-Suddi and An-Nadr bin `Arabi.

Allaah تعالى then states that:

{إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ}

{Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire} i.e. on the Day of Resurrection due to their tremendous Kufr.

Al-Waalibi  said that Ibn `Abbaas said:

{فِي الدَّرْكِ الأسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ}

{in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire} means, “in the bottom of the Fire.”

Other scholars said that the Fire has (ever lower) depths just as Paradise has (ever higher) grades.

And Sufyaan al-Thawree reported from `Aasim on the authority of Dhakwaan Abi Saaleh that Abu Hurairah said:

{إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ}

{Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire} means, “in coffins in which they will be bolted and sealed.” This was reported by Ibn Jareer.

And Ibn Abi Haatim reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah that he said:

{إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ}

{Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire}, “The lowest depths are like houses which have doors which will be locked over them; and then it will be ignited from above them and below them.”

Ibn Jareer recorded that `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood said that:

{إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ}

{Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire}, “Inside coffins of Fire that surround them, for they are closed and sealed in them.”

Ibn Abi Haaatim reported that Ibn Mas`ood said:

{إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ}

{Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire}, “In coffins made of iron, locked from all sides and it will have no place to open it from.”

Ibn Abi Haatim recorded that when Ibn Mas`ood was asked about the hypocrites. He said: “They will be placed in coffins made of fire and they will be closed in them in the lowest depth of the Fire.”

{وَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا}

{no helper will you find for them.}, to save them from their misery and to take them out of the painful torment.

Allaah تعالى then states that whoever among the hypocrites repents in this life, Allaah تعالى will accept his repentance and sorrow, if his repentance were sincere and he then follows it by performing righteous deeds, all the while depending on his Lord for all his needs.

Allaah تعالى said:

{إِلا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِاللَّهِ وَأَخْلَصُوا دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ}

{Except those who repent (from hypocrisy), do righteous good deeds, depend on Allaah and purify their religion for Allaah} i.e. replacing showing off with sincerity, so that their good deeds will benefit them, even if they were few.

{فَأُولَئِكَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ}

{then they will be with the believers.} i.e. on the Day of Resurrection,

{وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا}

{And Allaah تعالى will grant to the believers a great reward.}

Allaah تعالى then states that He is too Rich to need anyone and that He only punishes the servants because of their sins, saying:
{مَا يَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمْ إِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ وَآمَنْتُمْ}

{Why should Allaah تعالى punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him.} by correcting your actions and having faith in Allaah تعالى and His Messenger.

{وَكَانَ اللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمًا}

{And Allaah تعالى is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.} Allaah تعالى appreciates those who appreciate Him, and has knowledge of those whose hearts believe in Him, and He will give them perfect reward.
--end of quote.


Al-Qurtubee رحمه الله:

[144] {O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as friends instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allaah a manifest Sultan against yourselves.}

The saying of Allaah تعالى:
{يا أيها الذين آمنوا لا تتخذوا الكافرين أولياء}

{O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as friends} i.e. do not take them as special friends and close associates. And this was already discussed before.

{أتريدون أن تجعلوا لله عليكم سلطانا مبينا}

{Do you wish to offer Allaah a manifest proof against yourselves} i.e. in your punishment after He has established proof against you by already forbidding you from it.


[145] {Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the Fire; no helper will you find for them.}

The saying of Allaah تعالى:
{في الدرَك}

{the lowest depth}, and fire has seven levels of depths i.e. grades or stations. For the Jannah, there are grades going up, whereas for fire there are depths going lower.

The hypocrites will be in the lowest depth and it is al-Haawiyah (the pit) because of their extreme kufr and their ever constant changing sides (between the Believers and the Kuffaar), and their engagement in harming the Believers (and plotting against them).

The grades: The top level is جهنم (Jahannam), then لظى (Ladhaa), then الحطمة (al-Hutamah), the السعير (al-Sa`eer), then سقر (Saqr), then الجحيم (al-Jaheem), then الهاوية (al-Haawiyah).

Allaah, by His Grace and Generosity, give us refuge from its punishment.

It is reported on the authority of Ibn Mas`ood that he in explaining the saying of Allaah تعالى:

{إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ}

{Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire}, said: “In coffins made of iron, locked from all sides and the fire encompassing it.”

Ibn `Umar said: “Three groups of people will receive the severest type of punishment on the Day of Judgment: the hypocrites, from the companions of al-Maa’idah who did kufr, and Fir`aoun and his associates.”

The evidence for this is in the Book of Allaah تبارك وتعالى:

{إن المنافقين في الدرك الأسفل من النار}

{Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the Fire}

And Allaah تعالى said about the companions of al-Maa’idah (the table spread with food):

{فإني أعذبه عذابا لا أعذبه أحدا من العالمين} [المائدة : 115]

{Allaah said: “I am going to send it down to you, but if any of you after that disbelieves, then I will punish him with a torment such as I have not inflicted on anyone among (all) the `aalameen (mankind and jinn)”} [Surah al-Maa’idah (5): 115]

And He تعالى said about the Fir`aun and his people:

{أدخلوا آل فرعون أشد العذاب} [غـافر : 46]

{And on the Day when the Hour will be established (it will be said to the angels): “Cause Fir`aun’s (Pharaoh's) people to enter the severest torment!”} [Surah Ghaafir (40): 46]


[146] {Except those who repent, do righteous good deeds, depend on Allaah, and purify their religion for Allaah, then they will be with the believers. And Allaah will grant the believers a great reward} an exception for those who were hypocrites before. And from the conditions for the one who repents from hypocrisy is that he should rectify himself in his statements and in his actions. And that he depends on Allaah, i.e. he seeks His shelter and refuge, and that he purifies his worship for Allaah alone, as mentioned in this aayah. If he does not comply with this, then he has not repented sincerely.

Narrated Al Aswad: While we were sitting in a circle in `Abdullaah's (Ibn Mas`ood) رضي الله عنه gathering, Hudhaifah رضي الله عنه came and stopped before us, and greeted us and then said: “People better than you became hypocrites.” Al-Aswad said: Subhaan-Allaah! Allaah says: {Verily! The hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire.} On that `Abdullaah رضي الله عنه smiled and Hudhaifah رضي الله عنه sat somewhere in the Masjid. `Abdullaah رضي الله عنه then got up and his companions (sitting around him) dispersed. Hudhaifah رضي الله عنه then threw a pebble at me (to attract my attention). I went to him and he رضي الله عنه said: “I was surprised at `Abdullaah’s smile though he understood what I said. Verily, people better than you became hypocrite and then repented and Allaah forgave them.” [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (4602)]

[Translator’s Note: People at the time of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم were tried with faith, some became believers while others were still on their Kufr, and some others became hypocrites. When some of these hypocrites saw the reality of Islaam, they repented and Allaah forgave them. So they were better than the tabi`een because of their companionship with the Prophet صلى اله عليه وسلم after their repentence.]


[147] {Why should Allaah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him. And Allaah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.}

The question is asked to the hypocrites to attract their attention.

What benefit will Allaah get with your punishment if you have thanked Him and have believed in Him?

Allaah تعالى informed us that He does not punish the one who is a thankful believer.

And His punishing His slaves does not increase anything in his dominion;

And His leaving His servants and not punishing them for their actions does not decrease anything in His dominion.

Makhool رحمه الله said: “Four things, whoever has them, they are for his own advantage; and three things, whoever has them, they will be against him (and will be for his own disadvantage).

The four things are: الشكر (Shukr - thankfulness), الإيمان (Imaan - Faith), الدعاء (al-Du`aa’ - supplication) and الاستغفار (al-Istighfaar - seeking forgiveness). Allaah تعالى says:

{ما يفعل الله بعذابكم إن شكرتم وآمنتم}

{Why should Allaah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him?}

And Allaah تعالى says:

{وما كان الله ليعذبهم وأنت فيهم وما كان الله معذبهم وهم يستغفرون} [الأنفال : 33]

{And Allaah would not punish them while you (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) are amongst them, nor will He punish them while they seek (Allaah's) forgiveness.} [Surah al-Anfaal (8): 33]

And Allaah تعالى says:

{قل ما يعبأ بكم ربي لولا دعاؤكم} [الفرقان : 77]

{Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم to the disbelievers): “My Lord pays attention to you only because of your invocation to Him. But now you have indeed denied (Him). So the torment will be yours forever (inseparable, permanent punishment).”} [Surah al-Furqaan (25): 77]

As for the three, then they are the following: المكر (al-Makar – slyness/evil plotting), البغي (al-Baghi - transgression), النكث (al-Nakath – breaking the commitments). Allaah تعالى says:

{فمن نكث فإنما ينكث على نفسه} [الفتح : 10]

{Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm} [Surah al-Fath (48): 10]

And Allaah تعالى says:

{ولا يحيق المكر السيئ إلا بأهله} [فاطر : 43]

{But the evil plot encompasses only him who makes it.} [Surah al-Faatir (35): 43]

And Allaah تعالى says:

{إنما بغيكم على أنفسكم} [يونس : 23]

{O mankind! Your rebellion (disobedience to Allaah) is only against your own selves} [Surah Yunus (10): 23]

Allaah تعالى says:
{وكان الله شاكرا عليما}

{And Allaah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.} i.e. He appreciates the servants for all their acts of obedience. The meaning of {يشكرهم} is: He rewards them. He accepts the actions even if they are few and rewards for them tremendously, and this is the appreciation of Allaah for His worship.
--end of quote.


Al-Baghawee رحمه الله:

Allaah تعالى says:
{يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَتَّخِذُوا الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ}

{O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as friends instead of believers} Allaah تعالى forbade the believers from befriending the Kuffaar.

And He تعالى said:
{أَتُرِيدُونَ أَنْ تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُبِينًا}

{Do you wish to offer Allaah a manifest proof against yourselves?} i.e. clear evidence for your punishment.

Then He تعالى mentioned the status of the hypocrites, and He said:

{إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ}

{Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the Fire} And Ibn Mas`ood said: “In coffins made of iron, locked from all sides in fire.”

And Abu Hurairah said: “house which will be locked over them; and then it will be ignited from above them and below them.”

{إِلا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا}

{except those who repent} from hypocrisy and (sincerely) believe.

{وَأَصْلَحُوا}

{and rectify} their deeds.

{وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِاللَّهِ}

{depending upon Allaah} and relying upon Him.

{وَأَخْلَصُوا دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ}

{purifying their religion for Allaah} i.e. the sincerity of the heart, because hypocrisy is the kufr of the heart. So its removal is possible only by the heart becoming sincere.

{فَأُولَئِكَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ}

{then they will be with the believers} al-Faraa’ said: “(they will be counted) as among the believers.”

{وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ}

{And Allaah will grant the believers} on the Day of Judgment.

{أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا}

{great reward} i.e. the Jannah.

And the saying of Allaah تعالى:
{مَا يَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمْ إِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ}

{Why should Allaah punish you if you have thanked (Him)} i.e. if you thanked Him for His favors.

{وَآمَنْتُمْ}

{and believed} in Him.

It should be understood as: if you Believed and thanked Him. This is because thanking Him alone in itself is not beneficial without Imaan. So the meaning becomes: He will not punish the Believers who thank Him. His punishing His servants does not increase in his kingdom, and His letting go of the sinner and not punishing them does not decrease in His dominion.

Al-Shukr (thanking Him) is the opposite of Kufr, for Kufr is concealing the blessings of Allaah, whereas al-Shukr is revealing it.

{وَكَانَ اللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمًا}

{And Allaah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.} The appreciating of Allaah تعالى is that He is pleased even with a little worship and He rewards for it multiple times.

So al-Shukr from a servant is: obedience (to Allaah) and al-Shukr from Allaah is: the reward.
--end of quote.


Al-Sa`dee رحمه الله:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَتَّخِذُوا الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَنْ تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُبِينًا (144)
{O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as friends instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allaah a manifest Sultan against yourselves?}

After informing that one of the characteristics of the hypocrites is that they take the Kuffaars as their protectors and friends excluding the Muslims; Allaah تعالى forbade for His believing servants from adopting the same detested characteristics or that they resemble the hypocrites in anyway.

If that is present (among you) then that is the cause (for Allaah’s punishment) because:

{تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا}

{to offer Allaah a manifest proof against yourselves} means a clear evidence for your punishment; because He تعالى has already alarmed us and warned us from it, and informed us of the evil that is present in it (and the evil that arises because of it). So anyone who pursues this path, then that will be the cause for his punishment.

And in this aayah, there is evidence of the complete and perfect justice of Allaah تعالى; and that Allaah does not punish anyone before establishing clear evidence against him. And in this there is a warning for the sinner, that his actions give Allaah the clear evidence against himself.

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا (145) إِلا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِاللَّهِ وَأَخْلَصُوا دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ فَأُولَئِكَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا (146) مَا يَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمْ إِنْ شَكَرْتُمْ وَآمَنْتُمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمًا (147)  .

{Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the Fire; no helper will you find for them. Except those who repent, do righteous good deeds, depend on Allaah, and purify their religion for Allaah, then they will be with the believers. And Allaah will grant the believers a great reward. Why should Allaah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him? And Allaah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.}

Allaah تعالى informs about the end result of the hypocrites, that they will be in the lowest level in Hell with the most severe punishments. And they will be below all the Kuffaar because they associated with them in Kufr and in rejecting the worship of Allaah and in opposing His Messengers. And they increased (and helped the Kuffaar) in their plots, deception and strengthening them in the many ways in their enmity against the Muslims. It (hypocrisy) would not be visible on their face nor can it be sensed; for they would cover their acts (of deception) by implementing the regular commandments of Islaam (like prayer etc. outwardly), and would benefit (from the Believers) for which they had no rights.

Because of these (actions of theirs), they deserved the severest punishment. And there will be no savior for them from Allaah’s punishment and no helper who could ward it off. And this is general for every hypocrite, except for the one whom Allaah favored with the forgiveness of his sins.

{وَأَصْلَحُوا} {rectify} meaning their outer and inner actions.

{وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِاللَّهِ} {depend on Allaah} meaning: asking Him تعالى for all that which will benefit him and seeking His shelter from all that which harms him.

{وَأَخْلَصُوا دِينَهُمْ} {and purify their religion} which is al-Islaam, al-Imaan and al-Ihsaan {لِلَّهِ} {for Allaah}.

They should strive to seek Allaah’s face (and His pleasure) with their outer and inner actions and they should be safe from showing-off and hypocrisy.

So whoever of them has these characteristics, {they will be with the believers} meaning: in this world and in the Barzakh.

And on the Day of Resurrection, {Allaah will grant the believers a great reward}, no one knows the true extent of the reward except Allaah, because it is that which no eyes have seen, no ears have heard, and never crossed the heart of a man.

And see how Allaah تعالى specified الاعتصام “depending upon Him” and الإخلاص “sincerity” with His remembrance, even though these two are already implied in His saying: {وَأَصْلَحُوا} {and do good deeds}, because depending upon Him and sincerity are the part of doing good. (The reason for this emphasis is because) this is intensely required for them, especially in this critical position where hypocrisy from the hearts can be expected (as they have just left hypocrisy); and which cannot be eliminated except with extreme dependence on Allaah, and although the fact that sincerity itself means that which negates (opposes) hypocrisy. The reason they were mentioned (separately) is because all the outer and inner actions depend upon them (to be accepted by Allaah) and which they extremely need in this situation.

Then Allaah تعالى informed about the perfection of His being free from needs, His Forbearance, his mercy and His Kindness. He تعالى said:

{مَا يَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمْ إِن شَكَرْتُمْ وَآمَنتُمْ}

{Why should Allaah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him?} for indeed Allaah is Most Ready to appreciate and is All-Knowing. He gives those carry the weight for His sake - those who are persistent in doing (good) deeds - tremendous reward and much good. And whosoever forsakes something for the sake of Allaah, Allaah provides for him a thing better than that.

He تعالى knows all what you reveal and what you conceal, and He knows your actions which you do with sincerity and truthfulness, and that which opposes it. All He needs from you is repentance and that you turn towards Him. So, if you repent, what will He do by punishing you? Verily, He does not benefit anything by punishing you or tormenting you. Rather, the sinner does not harm anyone except himself, the way the action of the obedient one is for his own benefit.

Al-Shukr (thankfulness) is the submission of the heart and its’ acknowledging the favors of Allaah, and the praising of the tongue for the One who did the favors, and the actions of the limbs in His obedience, and that he does not uses these blessings in sinning against Him.
--end of quote.


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