Saturday, April 28, 2012

Difference between Khauf, Khashya & Taqwa

بـسـم الله والحـمـد لله والـصلاة والـسـلام عــلى رسـول الله، وبـعـد

A Question was raised to Shaikh Muhammad al-Malki حفظه الله about Khauf, Khashya and Taqwa.

What is the difference between Khauf, Khashya and Taqwa, because in English, all of them are commonly translated as fear?
Taqwa is more general that Khauf and Khashya, because Taqwa is Khauf and Khashya. Taqwa means to make a barrier between you and the fire. That is Taqwa. It is Khauf, Khashya and hope at the same time.

Khauf and Khashya, the difference between them is very slight. And Khashya is more sensitive than Khauf.

What you mean by more sensitive is: Khauf could be from Allaah and could be from anything else; but it depends on the cause of it if it is from other than Allaah. As if you have Khauf, which is fear of any creation, of something that only Allaah can do – then this is a kind of Shirk.

But if you fear the creation of something that they can do, like when you fear the snake to bite you and poison you; if you fear the lion to attack you and eat you up; if you fear the enemy to kill you; that is a natural fear which is not from the shirk.

But when you fear someone who is dead to harm you, then this is shirk. And when you fear someone the way you fear your Lord, then this is a way of worship, which is shirk.

Khashya, as I said, is more sensitive than fear; and more specific than fear (Khauf). Because Khashya has a very narrow meaning, very tight meaning, which only could be from Allaah.

Khashya is what settles in the heart that nothing – no harm – can come towards to you except by Allaah’s (Will). As they say “Umoom” (general) and “Khusoos” (specific) in these two, but the meaning is almost close; only slight difference.

As they say, Khauf may or may not make you do something to avoid it. But Khashya will have to make you do something to avoid it - that is Khashya. So Khashya is more specific than Khauf.  Allaahu a`lam.

But Taqwa is these two and more, like love, hope and like that. Wallaahu a`lam.
--end of quote

Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim رحمه الله said in his book al-Fawaaid:

Taqwa has three levels:

·         One: protecting the heart and limbs against sin and forbidden actions.
·         Two: protecting them against undesirable matters.
·         Three: protection against curiosity and whatever is not one’s concern.

The first one will grant life to the servant, the second will grant him health and power, and the third will grant him happiness and joy.
--end of quote

Imaam ibn Katheer رحمه الله said in his Tafseer: the root meaning of Taqwa is to avoid what one dislikes.

Ibn `Abbaas رضي الله عنهما said about verse in [Surah al-Baqarah (2):2],

﴿هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ﴾

{guidance for the Muttaqeen}, that it means: “They are the believers who avoid Shirk with Allaah and who work in His obedience.”

He also said that Al-Muttaqeen means: “Those who fear Allaah’s Punishment, which would result if they abandoned the true guidance that they recognize and know. They also hope in Allaah’s Mercy by believing in what He revealed.”

Further, Qataadah said that:


{Al-Muttaqeen}, are those whom Allaah has described in His statement;

﴿الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلوةَ﴾

{Who believe in the Ghayb and perform the Salaah} [Surah al-Baqarah (2):3], and the following Ayat.

Ibn Jareer stated that the Ayah [(2):2] includes all of these meanings that the scholars have mentioned, and this is the correct view.

Also, At-Tirmidhee and Ibn Maajah narrated that `Atiyah As-Sa`dee said that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

«لَا يَبْلُغُ الْعَبْدُ أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ حَتَّى يَدَعَ مَالَا بَأْسَ بِهِ حَذَرًا مِمَّا بِهِ بَأْس»

“The servant will not acquire the status of the Muttaqeen until he abandons what is harmless out of fear of falling into that which is harmful.” [At-Tirmidhee (2451), Ibn Maajah (4215) and graded as “Dha`eef” by Shaikh al-Albaanee]

It was reported that `Umar bin al-Khattaab رضي الله عنه asked Ubay ibn Ka`ab رضي الله عنه about Taqwa. Ubay said: “Have you ever walked on a path that has thorns on it?” `Umar said: “Yes.” Ubay said: “What did you do then?” He said: “I rolled up (my garment) and struggled (through the path).” Ubay said: “That is Taqwa.”
--end of quote

Imaam ibn Katheer رحمه الله also said:

Ibn Abi Haatim recorded that `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood commented on the Ayah,

﴿اتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ﴾

{Have Taqwa of Allaah as is His due,} [Surah aal-`Imraan (3): 102]

“That He is obeyed and not defied, remembered and not forgotten and appreciated and not unappreciated.” This has an authentic chain of narration to `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood.

Al-Haakim collected this Hadeeth in his al-Mustadrak, from Ibn Mas`ood, who related it to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. Al-Hakim said: “It is authentic according to the criteria of the Two Shaikhs (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim), and they did not record it.” This is what he said, but it appears that it is only a statement of `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood, and Allaah knows best.

[The narration is authentic as a statement of `Abdullaah Ibn Mas`ood رضي الله عنه, but its attribution to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم is “Munkar” (rejected), see al-Dha`eefah (6909) of Shaikh al-Albaanee]

It was also reported that Anas رضي الله عنه said: “The servant will not have Taqwa of Allaah as is His due until he keeps his tongue idle.”
--end of quote


  1. Assalamu alaykum warahmatullah ,
    May Allah swt accept your dawah works and reward you best...Aameen!
    Brother can you plz. post the complete reference (along with arabic) of this :
    "It was reported that `Umar bin al-Khattaab ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ‎ asked Ubay ibn Ka`ab ﺭﺿﻲ
    ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪabout Taqwa.
    Ubay said: “Have you ever walked on a path that has thorns on
    it?” `Umar said: “Yes.” Ubay said: “What did you do then?” He said: “I rolled up (my garment) and struggled (through the path).” Ubay
    said: “That is Taqwa.”....

    1. wa `alaikum assalaam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh.

      Aameen to your dua, and Allaah reward you the same.

      The reference to the athaar is Tafseer Ibn Katheer as already mentioned. The `Arabic text is as follows:

      وقد قيل: إن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه، سأل أبيّ بن كعب عن التقوى، فقال له: أما سلكت طريقًا ذا شوك؟ قال: بلى قال: فما عملت؟ قال: شمرت واجتهدت، قال: فذلك التقوى.

      This is how it is reported by Ibn Katheer.

      In Tafseer al-Baghawee, it is that `Umar رضي الله عنه asked Ka`b al-Ahbaar (instead of Ubai ibn Ka`b) and rest of the narration is the same.

      There is another narration with al-Baihaqee, where it is narrated that someone asked Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه, and he replied the same as Ubai bin Ka`b, but the name of the questioner is not mentioned.

      Inshaa-Allaah, I think this will suffice as an answer.

      Baarak Allaahu feekum wa sal Allaahu `alaa Nabiyinaa Muhammad.

  2. Assalaamu'alaykum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh akhi foodie fahoodie.
    i ask for permission to copy n paste it as my status update. jazakallaahu khoiron

    1. wa `alaikum assalaam wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh.

      yes, you, as well as anyone else, can share this and every other post from this blog, without the need of asking for permission.

      baarak Allaahu feek.