Thursday, February 23, 2012

Tafseer: The reason why provision is not increased

بـسـم الله والحـمـد لله والـصلاة والـسـلام عــلى رسـول الله، وبـعـد

Allaah تعالى says:

﴿ وَلَوْ بَسَطَ اللَّهُ الرِّزْقَ لِعِبَادِهِ لَبَغَوْاْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَلَـكِن يُنَزِّلُ بِقَدَرٍ مَّا يَشَآءُ إِنَّهُ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرُ بَصِيرٌ - وَهُوَ الَّذِى يُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا قَنَطُواْ وَيَنشُرُ رَحْمَتَهُ وَهُوَ الْوَلِىُّ الْحَمِيدُ ﴾

{And if Allaah were to enlarge the provision for His slaves, they would surely rebel in the earth, but He sends down by measure as He wills. Verily, He is, in respect of His slaves, Well-Acquainted, All-Seer (of things that benefit them). And He it is Who sends down the rain after they have despaired, and spreads His Mercy. And He is the Walee (Helper, Supporter, Protector, Lord), the Worthy of all praise.} [Surah al-Shooraa (42): 27-28]]


Imaam Ibn Katheer رحمه الله mentioned in his Tafseer:

﴿وَلَوْ بَسَطَ اللَّهُ الرِّزْقَ لِعِبَادِهِ لَبَغَوْاْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ﴾

{And if Allaah were to extend the provision for His servants, they would surely rebel in the earth,} means: ‘if We gave them more provision than they need, this would make them rebel and transgress against one another in an arrogant and insolent manner.’

Qataadah said: ‘It was said: “The best provision is that which does not distracts you (from the remembrance of Allaah) nor does it make you rebel (against Him).”’ Then Qataadah mentioned the following Hadeeth:

Narrated Abu Sa`eed Al Khudree رضي الله عنه: Once the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم sat on a pulpit and we sat around him. Then he said: “The things I am afraid of most for your sake (concerning what will befall you after me) is the pleasures and splendors of the world and its beauties which will be disclosed to you.” Somebody said: “O Allaah's Apostle! Can the good bring forth evil?” The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم remained silent for a while. It was said to that person: “What is wrong with you? You are talking to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم while he is not talking to you.” Then we noticed that he صلى الله عليه وسلم was being inspired divinely. Then the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم wiped off his sweat and said: “Where is the questioner?” It seemed as if the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم liked his question. Then he said: “Good never brings forth evil. Indeed it is like what grows on the banks of a water-stream which either kill or make the animals sick, except if an animal eats its fill the Khadira (a kind of vegetable) and then faces the sun, and then defecates and urinates and grazes again. No doubt this wealth is sweet and green. Blessed is the wealth of a Muslim from which he gives to the poor, the orphans and to needy travelers. (Or the Prophet said something similar to it.) No doubt, whoever takes it illegally will be like the one who eats but is never satisfied, and his wealth will be a witness against him on the Day of Resurrection.” [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (1465, 2842, 6427) and Saheeh Muslim (1749, 1750, 1751)]

﴿وَلَـكِن يُنَزِّلُ بِقَدَرٍ مَّا يَشَآءُ إِنَّهُ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرُ بَصِيرٌ﴾

{but He sends down by measure as He wills. Verily, He is, in respect of His servants, the Well-Aware, the All-Seer} means: ‘but He gives them provision according to what is in their best interests, and He knows best about that. So He makes rich those who deserve to be rich, and He makes poor those who deserve to be poor.’

﴿وَهُوَ الَّذِى يُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا قَنَطُواْ﴾

{And He it is Who sends down the rain after they have despaired,} means: ‘after the people have given up hope that rain will fall, He sends it down upon them at their time of need. This is like the Ayah:

﴿وَإِن كَانُواْ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَمُبْلِسِينَ ﴾

{And verily, before that (rain) -- just before it was sent down upon them -- they were in despair!} [Surah al-Room (30): 49]

﴿وَيَنشُرُ رَحْمَتَهُ﴾

{and spreads His mercy.} means: ‘He تعالى bestows it upon all the people who live in that region.

Qataadah said: “We were told that a man said to `Umar bin Al-Khattaab رضي الله عنه: ‘O Commander of the faithful, no rain has come and the people are in despair.’ `Umar رضي الله عنه said: ‘Rain will be sent upon you,’ and he recited:

﴿وَهُوَ الَّذِى يُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا قَنَطُواْ وَيَنشُرُ رَحْمَتَهُ وَهُوَ الْوَلِىُّ الْحَمِيدُ ﴾

{And He it is Who sends down the rain after they have despaired, and spreads His mercy. And He is the Protector, Worthy of all praise}. meaning: ‘He is the One Who is in control of His creation, taking care of what will benefit them in this world and the Hereafter, and the consequences of all His decrees and actions are good, for which He is worthy of all praise.’

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Shaikh `Abdul Rahmaan al-Sa`dee رحمه الله said:

Then Allaah تعالى mentioned that from His kindness is that He does not expands for them the worldly (treasure), that which will harm their religion. He تعالى said:

{And if Allaah were to enlarge the provision for His slaves, they would surely rebel in the earth} means, they will become negligent in their obedience to Allaah, and will accept and follow their lust, and they will join together in what they desire, even it is sin and oppression.


{but He sends down by measure as He wills} as per what He تعالى decides out of His kindness and wisdom.

{He is, in respect of His servants, the Well-Aware, the All-Seer} as has come in a narration that Allaah تعالى is supposed to have said: “There is from My slaves whose Imaan is not rectified except thru wealth, if I made him with poor, it (his faith) will become corrupted. And there is from My slaves, whose Imaan is not rectified except thru poverty, and if I make him rich, it will be corrupted. There is from My slaves whose Imaan is not rectified except thru good health, and if I make him sick, it will be corrupted. And there is from My slaves whose Imaan is not rectified except thru sickness, and if I make him well, it will become corrupted. I arrange for My slaves as per my Knowledge of what is in their hearts. For verily, I am the Well-Aware, the All Seer.” [This narration is “Dha`eef Jiddan” (very weak), see al-Dha`eefah (1774, 1775) of Shaikh al-Albaanee]

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Al-Qurtubee رحمه الله mentioned in his Tafseer:

There are two matters of discussion here: The first is the incident surrounding its revelation. It is said that it was revealed about some of the people from ahl-Suffah, who wished to have an increase in their provision.

Khabbaab bin al-Art said: “It was revealed concerning us. For we saw the wealth of Banu al-Nadheer and Quraidhah, and Banu Qainuqaa`; and we wished to have such wealth as theirs and thus it (this ayah) was revealed.”

{they would surely rebel in the earth} means they would have transgressed and disobeyed (Allaah’s commands).

Ibn `Abbaas رضي الله عنه said: “Their transgression would be their continuous pursuing for status upon status; and their persistent pursuing for one ride after another [in our present day: asking for new modeled car every year]; and pursuing for clothes after clothes.”

And it is also said: if they are given more, they will still ask for more than what they got, as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “If the son of Aadam had two valleys of money (in another narration: valley of gold), he would wish for a third, for nothing can fill the belly of Aadam's son except dust, and Allaah forgives him who repents to Him.” [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (6436, 6439) and Saheeh Muslim (1744)] and this is what is transgression, and this is the meaning of the statement of Ibn `Abbaas رضي الله عنه.

And it is said: Had Allaah, made everyone equal in wealth, then people would have prevent from dealing with each other and trading would be disrupted…

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