Sunday, February 5, 2012

Removing The Doubts: Did Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه do injustice to the family of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم?

بـسـم الله والحـمـد لله والـصلاة والـسـلام عــلى رسـول الله، وبـعـد

Hadeeth #1:

Narrated `Aaishah (mother of the believers) رضي الله عنها: “After the death of Allaah’s Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم, Faatimah عليها السلام, the daughter of Allaah’s Apostle, asked Abu Bakr Al-Siddeeq رضي الله عنه to give her her share of inheritance from what Allaah’s Apostle had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allaah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her: “Allaah’s Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is sadaqah (to be used for charity)’”. Faatimah عليها السلام, the daughter of Allaah’s Apostle got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Faatimah عليها السلام remained alive for six months after the death of Allaah’s Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم. She used to ask Abu Bakr for her share from the property of Allaah’s Apostle which he left at Khaibar, and Fadak, and his property at Madeenah (devoted for charity). Abu Bakr refused to give her that property and said: “I will not leave anything Allaah’s Apostle used to do, because I am afraid that if I left something from the Prophet’s tradition, then I would go astray.” (Later on) `Umar gave the Prophet's property (of sadaqa) at Madeenah to `Alee and `Abbaas, but he withheld the properties of Khaibar and Fadak in his custody and said: “These two properties are the sadaqah which Allaah’s Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم used to use for his expenditures and urgent needs. Now their management is to be entrusted to the ruler.” (Al-Zuhree (d. 52H) said: “They have been managed in this way till today.”) [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (3091) and Saheeh Muslim (3311)]


Hadeeth #2:

Narrated `Aaishah رضي الله عنها: “Faatimah عليها السلام, the daughter of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم sent someone to Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه (when he was a caliph), asking for her inheritance of what Allaah’s Apostle had left of the property bestowed on him by Allaah from the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) in Madeenah, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus of the Khaibar booty. On that, Abu Bakr said: “Allaah’s Apostle said: ‘Our property is not inherited. Whatever we leave, is sadaqah, but the family of (the Prophet) Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم can eat of this property.’ By Allaah, I will not make any change in the state of the sadaqah of Allaah’s Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم and will leave it as it was during the lifetime of Allaah’s Apostle, and will dispose of it as Allaah’s Apostle used to do.” So Abu Bakr refused to give anything of that to Faatimah عليها السلام. So she became angry with Abu Bakr and kept away from him, and did not talk to him till she died. She remained alive for six months after the death of the Prophet. When she died, her husband `Alee رضي الله عنه, buried her at night without informing Abu Bakr and he said the funeral prayer by himself. When Faatimah عليها السلام was alive, the people used to respect `Alee much, but after her death, `Alee noticed a change in the people's attitude towards him. So `Alee sought reconciliation with Abu Bakr and gave him an oath of allegiance. `Alee had not given the oath of allegiance during those months (i.e. the period between the Prophet’s death and Faatima’s death). `Alee sent someone to Abu Bakr saying: “Come to us, but let nobody come with you,” as he disliked that `Umar should come. `Umar said (to Abu Bakr): “No, by Allaah, you shall not enter upon them alone.” Abu Bakr said: “What do you think they will do to me? By Allaah, I will go to them.” So Abu Bakr entered upon them, and then `Alee uttered Tashah-hud and said (to Abu Bakr): “We know well your superiority and what Allaah has given you, and we are not jealous of the good what Allaah has bestowed upon you, but you did not consult us in the question of the rule and we thought that we have got a right in it because of our near relationship to Allaah’s Apostle.”

Thereupon Abu Bakr’s eyes flowed with tears. And when Abu Bakr spoke: he said: “By Him in Whose Hand my soul is to keep good relations with the relatives of Allaah’s Apostle is dearer to me than to keep good relations with my own relatives. But as for the trouble which arose between me and you about his property, I will do my best to spend it according to what is good, and will not leave any rule or regulation which I saw Allaah’s Apostle following, in disposing of it, but I will follow.” On that `Alee said to Abu Bakr: “I promise to give you the oath of allegiance in this afternoon.” So when Abu Bakr had offered the Dhuhr prayer, he ascended the pulpit and uttered the Tashah-hud and then mentioned the story of `Alee and his failure to give the oath of allegiance, and excused him, accepting what excuses he had offered. Then `Alee (got up) and praying (to Allaah) for forgiveness, he uttered Tashah-hud, praised Abu Bakr's right, and said, that he had not done what he had done because of jealousy of Abu Bakr or as a protest of that Allaah had favored him with. `Alee added: “But we used to consider that we too had some right in this affair (of rulership) and that he (i.e. Abu Bakr) did not consult us in this matter, and therefore caused us to feel sorry.” On that all the Muslims became happy and said: “You have done the right thing.” The Muslims then became friendly with `Alee as he returned to what the people had done (i.e. giving the oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr). [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (4241) and Saheeh Muslim (3310)]


Hadeeth #3:

Narrated Maalik ibn Aws al-Hadthaan said: “One of the arguments put forward by `Umar رضي الله عنه was that he said that the Apostle of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم received three things exclusively to himself: Banu an-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu an-Nadir property was kept wholly for his emergent needs; Fadak for travelers; and Khaybar was divided by the Apostle of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم into three sections: two for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his family. If anything remained after making the contribution of his family, he divided it among the poor Emigrants.” [Sunan Abu Dawood (2967) and graded “Hasan” by Shaikh al-Albaanee]


Refutation of the false claim of the Shee`a:

The Shee`a do grave injustice to Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه and make him look like a tyrant, whereas he was one of the foremost persons to help the family of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. Even though the above three narrations are crystal clear on why Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه made that decision; the following incident will further help to prove that Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه did not do any injustice:


“In fact, once after the Khaleefah, Abu al-`Abbaas al-Saffaah, delivered a speech, an `Alawite stood up and said: “I am among `Alee’s descendants, O Ameer al-Mu’mineen, help me against those who have wronged me.” When he asked the `Alawite who wronged him, he replied: “I am one of `Alee’s grandchildren and the one who wronged me was Abu Bakr when he took the oasis of Fadak from Faatimah.” Al-Saffaah asked him whether Abu Bakr continued to perpetrate this wrong, and he replied that he had. Then he asked him who took charge after Abu Bakr and he replied, “`Umar”. So he asked him if he also continued the wrong and he replied that he had. He then asked who took charge after `Umar, to which he replied “`Uthmaan”. Again he asked him if he also continued the wrong and he replied that he had. Then he asked him who took charge after `Uthmaan, and he began to look around here and there to find a place where he could hide.* [Talbees Iblees (The Devil’s Deception) – Ibn al-Jawzi]

*`Alee رضي الله عنه took charge after `Uthmaan رضي الله عنه, and he did not rectify this supposed wrong. So, either `Alee رضي الله عنه continued the oppression of himself and his family or Abu Bakr رضي الله عنه was right in not giving Faatimah عليها السلام the oasis of Fadak based on the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم statement that what the Prophets leave behind is charity and not inheritance.

3 comments:

  1. Assalammualaikum.

    After Faatimah's name should be radhiallahuanha. Not alaihi salam.

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    Replies
    1. wa `alaikum assalaam.

      When I was writing this article, I did use "رضي الله عنها" after mentioning Faatimah, the daughter of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.

      But when I referred to the Ahaadeeth in `Arabic, Imaam al-Bukhaaree, whenever he mentioned her name, in all the many Ahaadeeth in his Saheeh, used "عليها السلام". Example:

      عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ فَاطِمَةَ عَلَيْهَا السَّلَام بِنْتَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم

      So in following his footsteps, I used "عليها السلام".

      Barak Allaahu feek.

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    2. Another evidence of its correctness is the prayers and blessing we send upon the Prophet and his family by saying:
      اللهم صلى على محمد وعلى آل محمد
      اللهم بارك على محمد وعلى آل محمد

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