Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Lessons In The Month Of Ramadhaan # 4

Rulings on the Night Prayers in Ramadhaan.


بـسـم الله والحـمـد لله والـصلاة والـسـلام عــلى رسـول الله، وبـعـد


Brief translation of Shaikh al-`Uthaymeen's " مجالس شهر الرمضان "

All praises are for Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. And peace and blessings upon Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions and all those who follow their path.

O my brothers! Verily, Allaah has legislated for His worship different acts of worship. He made some of these acts as obligatory, and it is not allowed for anyone to reduce from it any act or to breach it. Other acts are supererogatory, with which a person can get even more close to Allaah and which can act as a completion for the deficiencies in the obligatory acts.

And from among these (acts) is the 5 daily prayers in a day and night, which Allaah تعالى has made obligatory upon His slaves. In action these are five (prayers), but in reward they are fifty. Allaah تعالى will complete (any deficiencies) in these obligatory prayers with the supererogatory prayers.[1] The person will get more closer to Allaah with the voluntary (nawaafil) prayers which are prayed with the obligatory prayers [2]: 2 Raka`ah before Fajr; 4 Raka`ah before Dhuhr and 2 after it; 2 Raka`ah after Maghrib; and 2 Raka`ah after `Ishaa’; and among them (the optional prayers) is the night prayer, for which Allaah تعالى has praised the one who establishes it, when He تعالى said:

{وَالَّذِينَ يِبِيتُونَ لِرَبِّهِمْ سُجَّداً وَقِيَـاماً } [الفرقان: 64]

{And those who spend the night in worship of their Lord, prostrate and standing.} [Surah al-Furqaan (25): 64]

And He تعالى said:

{تَتَجَافَى جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفاً وَطَمَعاً وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ * فَلاَ تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَّآ أُخْفِىَ لَهُم مِّن قُرَّةِ أَعْيُنٍ جَزَآءً بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ } [السجدة: 16، 17]

{Their sides forsake their beds, to invoke their Lord in fear and hope, and they spend (in charity in Allâh's Cause) out of what We have bestowed on them. No person knows what is kept hidden.} [Surah al-Sajdah (32): 16-17]

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

«أفضل الصلاةِ بَعْد الفريضةِ صلاةُ الليل»
“The most excellent prayer after what is prescribed is prayer during the night.” [3]

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم also said:

«أيُّها الناس أفْشوا السلامَ وأطعِمُوا الطعامَ وصِلوا الأرْحَامَ وصَلُّوا باللَّيل والناسُ نيامٌ تَدخُلُوا الجنّةَ بِسَلام»

“O people! Spread the greeting of peace (by saying Assalaam `alaikum) and feed (the poor), and keep good relations with your kith and kin, and pray in the night while the people are sleeping, you will enter the Jannah with peace.”[4]

And from the night prayers is “al-Witr” which can be from a minimum of 1 Raka`ah up to the 11 Raka`aat (i.e. a person can pray 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 or 11). A person can pray Witr as a separate Raka`ah as per the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم:

«منْ أحبَّ أنْ يُوتِر بواحدةٍ فَلْيفعلْ»

“If anyone wishes to observe Witr with one Raka`ah, he may do so.”[5]

Or he can perform Witr as 3 Raka`aat as per the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم:

«مَنْ أحبَّ أن يوتر بثلاثٍ فلْيَفْعَل»

“If anyone wishes to observe it with three, he may do so.”[6]

It preferred that it is offered with one “Tasleem” (i.e. a person who is offering 3 Raka`aat together should not sit except for the last Tashahhud and then do the Tasleem on the right and the left so that the Witr prayer does not resemble the Maghrib prayer) – as what has been reported by al-Tahaawee that `Umar bin al-Khattaab رضي الله عنه prayed Witr of 3 Raka`aat and he did not do the Tasleem except in the end. It is also preferred that a person prays 2 Raka`aat and does the Tasleem, then prays the third (separately) as what has been reported by al-Bukhaaree:

«أن عبد الله بن عمر كان يسلم بين الركعة والركعتين في الوتر حتى يأمر ببعض حاجته»

“`Abdullah bin `Umar used to say Tasleem between (the first) two Raka`aat and (the third) odd one in the Witr prayer, when he wanted to attend to a certain matter (during that interval between the Raka`aat).”[7]

And he can also pray Witr of 5 Raka`aat, but he should pray all of them together without sitting (for Tashahhud) in between them nor doing the Tasleem except at the end; as per the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم:

«من أحبَّ أن يوتر بخمْسٍ فليفْعل»

“So if anyone wishes to observe it with five Raka`aat, he may do so” [8]

وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: «كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلّم يُصلِّي من الليلِ ثلاثَ عَشْرَة ركعةً يوترُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ بخمسٍ لا يَجْلسُ في شَيْءٍ منهن إلا في آخِرهِنّ»

`Aishah رضي الله عنها narrated that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم used to observe thirteen Raka`aat of the night prayer. Five out of them consisted of Witr, and he did not sit, but at the end (for salutation).[9]

And a person can pray 7 Raka`aat like the way he prays 5 Raka`aat (i.e. without sitting in between for Tashahhud except at the end), as per the narration of Umm Salamah رضي الله عنها:

«كانَ النبيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم يوتر بسبعٍ وبخمسٍ لا يَفْصلُ بينهن بسلامٍ ولا كلامٍ»

“The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم used to pray Witr as seven and (sometimes as) five, and he did not separate between them with Tasleem or with talks.”[10]

He can pray Witr of 9 Raka`aat, but should not sit (for Tashahhud) except after the 8th Raka`ah; he should read the Tashahhud and make the supplication and then should stand without making the Tasleem and then should pray the 9th Raka`ah and then do the Tashahhud and the supplication and then the Tasleem as per the Hadeeth reported by `Aishah رضي الله عنها:

«كان يصلِّي تسْعَ رَكَعَاتٍ لا يجلسُ فيها إلا في الثَّامِنَةِ فيذكرُ الله ويحمدَهُ ويدْعُوه ثم يَنْهضُ ولا يُسلِّم ثم يَقُومُ فيصلَّي التاسعة ثم يقعُدُ فيذكرُ الله ويحمدُهُ ويدْعُوه ثم يسلِّم تسليماً يسمعُنا»

“He صلى الله عليه وسلم would offer nine Raka`aat. He would only sit for the eighth one and would remember Allaah, praise Him and supplicate Him, then he would stand up without uttering the salutation and pray the ninth Raka`ah. He would then sit, remember Him, praise Him and supplicate Him and then utter a salutation loud enough for us to hear.”[11]

He can pray 11 Raka`aat, and if he wishes, he can make Tasleem after every 2 Raka`aat and pray the Witr as a separate Raka`ah as per the Hadeeth of `Aishah رضي الله عنها:

«كانَ النبيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم يُصلِّي ما بينَ أنْ يفْرَغَ من صلاةِ العشاءِ إلى الفجر إحدى عشرة ركعة يسلِّم بين كل ركعتين ويُوْتر بواحدةٍ»

“Between the `Ishaa prayer and the Fajr, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم used to pray eleven Raka`aat, and he used to do the Tasleem after every two Raka`aat,and pray the Witr separately.” [12]

And if the person wishes, he can pray 4 Raka`aat (combined with one Tasleem), then 4 Raka`aat, and then 3 Raka`aat as per the Hadeeth of `Aishah رضي الله عنها:

«كان النبيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم يُصلِّي أربعاً فلا تسْألْ عن حُسْنِهنَّ وطولهنَّ ثم يصلِّي أربعاً فلا تسألْ عن حُسْنِهنَّ وطولهنَّ ثم يصلِّي ثلاثاً»

“Allaah's Apostle never exceeded eleven Raka`aat in Ramadhaan or in other months; he used to offer four Raka`aat -- do not ask me about their beauty and length, then four Raka`aat, do not ask me about their beauty and length, and then three Raka`aat.” [13]

A person can pray 5, 7 or 9 Raka`aat together when he is alone or when he is in a group which has pre-agreed in doing so. But as for the comman Masjid, then it is upon the Imaam to give preference in doing the Tasleem after every 2 Raka`aat, so that it does not become a burden upon the follower as has been reported:

«أيُّكم أَمَّ النَّاسَ فليوجِزْ فإِنَّ مِنْ ورائه الكبيرَ والضعيفَ وذا الحاجة»

Narrated Abu Masud: A man came and said, “O Allaah's Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم! By Allaah, I keep away from the morning prayer only because so and so prolongs the prayer when he leads us in it.” The narrator said, “I never saw Allaah's Apostle more furious in giving advice than he was at that time. He صلى الله عليه وسلم then said, ‘Some of you make people dislike good deeds (the prayer). So whoever among you leads the people in prayer should shorten it because among them are the weak, the old and the needy.’ [14]

And in another narration:
«فإذا صلَّى وَحْدَه فليصلِّ كيف يَشاء»

Narrated Abu Hurairah: Allaah's Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "If anyone of you leads the people in the prayer, he should shorten it for amongst them are the weak, the sick and the old; and if anyone among your prays alone then he may prolong (the prayer) as much as he wishes."[15]

And it has not been reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم prolonged his Witr in such a way (i.e. praying 5 or 7 Raka`aat without sitting in between) while his companions were with him. He used to only do that while praying alone.

The night prayers in Ramadhaan have its own virtue and advantage over other (prayers) as per the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم:
«مَنْ قَام رمضانَ إِيْماناً واحتساباً غُفِرَ له ما تقدَّم من ذنبِهِ»

Narrated Abu Hurairah: Allaah's Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Whoever establishes prayers during the nights of Ramadhaan faithfully out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allaah's rewards, all his past sins will be forgiven.” [16]

And his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying: “faithfully” means having faith in Allaah (and other articles of faith), as well as having faith in what Allaah has prepared as a reward for those who establish it. And in his صلى الله عليه وسلم saying: “hoping”: i.e. seeking reward from Allaah alone, and not doing it for showing off, or seeking wealth or fame.

Standing in the night of Ramadhaan includes it all – either praying in the early part of the night or the last part of it. So as per this, the Taraaweeh (which is prayed directly after `Ishaa’) is from standing (in prayer at night) in Ramadhaan. So, care should be taken in establishing it and (offering it in the best manner) while hoping for the reward for it from Allaah. And it is but a few nights, which only a sensible Mu’min seizes the opportunity before it (the Ramadhaan) departs. It is so named as Taraaweeh (from the root word راحة which means rest) because the people used to prolong it to great extend. So whenever they finished 4 Raka`aat, they used to take some rest.

And the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was the first one to establish the Sunnah of praying the Taraaweeh in the Jamaa`ah in the Masjid. Then he stopped it, fearing that it will be made obligatory upon the Ummah. In the Saheehain it is reported:

عَنْ عائشةَ رضي الله عنها أنَّ النبيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم صلَّى في المسجدِ ذات لْيلةٍ وصلَّى بصلاتِهِ ناسٌ ثُمَّ صلَّى من الْقَابلةِ وكثر الناسُ ثم اجْتمعوا من اللَّيْلة الثالثةِ أو الرابعةِ فلَمْ يخرجْ إِلَيْهم رسولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلّم فَلَمَّا أصبَحَ قال: «قد رأيتُ الَّذِي صَنَعْتُم فلم يَمْنعني من الخُروجِ إليكم إلاَّ إِنِي خَشيتُ أنْ تُفْرضَ عَلَيْكُمْ. قال: وَذَلِكَ فِي رمضانَ»

Narrated `Aishah, the mother of the faithful believers: One night Allaah's Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم offered the prayer in the Mosque and the people followed him. The next night he also offered the prayer and too many people gathered. On the third and the fourth nights more people gathered, but Allaah's Apostle did not come out to them. In the morning he said, "I saw what you were doing and nothing but the fear that it (i.e. the prayer) might be enjoined on you, stopped me from coming to you." And that happened in the month of Ramadhaan. [17]

وعن أبي ذرٍ رضي الله عنه قال: «صُمْنا مع النبيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم فلَمْ يقُمْ بنا حتى بَقِي سَبْعٌ من الشَّهْرِ، فقامِ بِنَا حتى ذَهبَ ثُلُثُ اللَّيْل، ثُمَّ لم يقم بنا في السادسة، ثم قام بنا في الخامسة حتى ذهب شَطْرُ الليلِ أي نصفُه فقلنا: يا رسولَ الله لو نَفَّلتَنا بَقيَّة ليلتنا هذه فقال صلى الله عليه وسلّم: إنَّه مَنْ قام مع الإِمامِ حَتَّى ينْصرفَ كُتِبَ له قيامُ ليلةٍ» الحديث، رواه أهْل السنن بسندٍ صحيحٍ.

Narrated Abu Dharr رضي الله عنها: We fasted with the Apostle of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم during Ramadhaan, but he did not make us get up at night for prayer at any time during the month till seven nights remained; then he made us get up for prayer till a third of the night had passed. When the sixth remaining night came, he did not make us get up for prayer. When the fifth remaining night came, he made us stand in prayer till a half of the night had gone. So I said: Apostle of Allaah, I wish you had led us in supererogatory prayers during the whole of tonight. He said: “When a man prays with an Imaam till he (the Imaam) finishes, he is reckoned as having spent a whole night in prayer.” On the fourth remaining night he did not make us get up. When the third remaining night came, he gathered his family, his wives, and the people and prayed with us till we were afraid we should miss the falah (success). I said: What is falah? He said: The meal before daybreak. Then he did not make us get up for prayer during the remainder of the month. [18]

There was a difference of opinion amongst the pious predecessors about the number of Raka`aat there are in Taraaweeh prayer with the Witr included with it. Some said it is 41 Raka`aat, while the others said it is 39 Raka`aat. Some said 29 Raka`aat, and some as 23 Raka`aat, some said 19 Raka`aat, and some said 13 Raka`aat, while some others said it is 11 Raka`aat and some said it is other than that. But the correct opinion is that it is 11 Raka`aat or 13 Raka`aat as has been mentioned in al-Saheehain:

عن عائشةَ رضي الله عنها أنهَا سُئِلَتْ كيفَ كانتْ صلاةُ النبيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم في رمضان؟ فقالت: «ما كانَ يزيدُ في رمضانَ ولا غيرِه على إحْدى عَشرةَ رِكعةً»

When `Aishah رضي الله عنها was asked: How is the prayer of Allaah's Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم during the month of Ramadan." She said, "Allaah's Apostle never exceeded eleven Raka`aat in Ramadan or in other months.” [19]

وعن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال: «كانتْ صلاةُ النبيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلّم ثَلاَثَ عشْرةَ ركعةً يعني مِنَ اللَّيْل»

Narrated Ibn `Abbaas: “The prayer of the Prophet used to be of thirteen Raka`aat, i.e. of the night prayer.” [20]

In the Muwattaa (of Imaam Maalik) it is reported:

عن السَّائِب بن يزيدَ رضيَ الله عنه قال: «أمرَ عُمَر بنُ الخطابِ رضي الله عنه أُبيِّ بنَ كَعْب وتميماً الداريَّ أنْ يقُومَا للنَّاس بإحْدى عَشرةَ ركعةً»

On the authority of al-Saa’ib ibn Yazeed رضي الله عنه said, "`Umar ibn al-Khattaab ordered Ubay ibn Ka`b and Tameem al-Dari to establish the night in prayer with the people (in congregation) for eleven Raka`aat.” [21]

The pious predecessors use to prolong the prayers to great extend, as has been reported in the Hadeeth of al-Saa’ib ibn Yazeed رضي الله عنه:

«كان القارأ يقرأ بالمئين يعني بمئات الآيَاتِ حَتَّى كُنَّا نَعْتمدُ على الْعصِيِّ منْ طولِ القيامِ وَمَا كُنَّا نَنْصَرِفُ إِلَّا فِي فُرُوعِ الْفَجْرِ»

“The reciters of the Qur’aan would recite the Mi’een (a group of medium-sized Surahs) until we would be leaning on our staffs from having stood so long in prayer. And we would not leave until the approach of dawn.” [22]

And this is in opposition to what many people do today. They pray Taraaweeh with such speed that they do not establish the prayer with peace and tranquility, which is from the pillars of prayer, and the prayer is not valid without it.  So they leave this pillar and they burden the people praying behind them from amongst the weak, sick and elderly (with their enormous speed). They wrong themselves and they wrong the others. The scholars’ رحمهم الله mentioned that it is disliked that the Imaam should pray so fast that the followers behind him cannot catch him. We ask Allaah for safety (from such actions).

It is not advisable that a man should stay away from praying Taraaweeh, because of the great rewards (promised); nor to leave (the congregation) till the Imaam finishes the Taraaweeh and the Witr so that he receives the reward of praying the whole night. And it is permissible for the women to attend the Taraaweeh (in congregation) in the Masjid if they are protected from the fitnah, and that they are not the cause of the fitnah (by using perfumes and not being properly covered), as per the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم:

«لا تَمْنعوا إماءَ الله مساجدَ الله»

'Do not stop Allaah's women-slave from going to Allaah's Mosques'[23]

And this (allowing the women to attend the congregation) was also done by the righteous predecessors. But the women should come to the Masjid covering themselves (including the face), wearing the Hijaab and they should not be unveiled, showing off their beauty, nor applying perfume, and not raising their voices, as per the saying of Allaah تعالى:

{وَلاَ يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلاَّ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا} [النور: 31]

{And not to show off their adornment except that which is apparent} [Surah al-Noor (24): 31]

What is apparent are the things which she cannot hide like her veil and the outer garment (jilbaab) and similar to it. And the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم had instructed the women to attend the `Eid prayers, so Umm `Atiyah said: “O Messenger of Allaah! What if one of us does not have a veil?” He صلى الله عليه وسلم said:

«لتُلبِسها أُختُها من جلبابها»

“She should cover herself with the veil of her companion” [24]

And from the Sunnah is that the women should not rush (to raise their head from the sujood)[25] before men and she should stay away from them; and that they should start the rows from the back (of the Masjid), opposite to what men do as per the saying of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم:

«خير صفوف الرجَالِ أوَّلُهَا وشرُّها آخِرُها وخير صفوفِ النساءِ آخِرُها وشُّرها أوَّلُها»

“The best rows for men are the first rows, and the worst one the last ones, and the best rows for women are the last ones and the worst ones for them are the first ones.” [26]

And that they should exit the Masjid soon after the Tasleem (when the prayer is over) and that they should not delay (sitting in it) except for some reason as per the Hadeeth of Umm Salamah رضي الله عنها, who said:

«كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلّم إذا سلَّم قامَ النِّساءُ حِينَ يقضِي تسليمَه وهو يمكُثُ في مَقامِهِ يَسْيراً قبل أنْ يقومَ»، قالتْ: نرى والله أعلم أن ذلك كان لكي ينصرف النساء قبل أن يدركهن الرجال

Whenever Allaah's Apostle finished his prayers with Tasleem, the women would get up and he would stay on for a while in his place before getting up. Ibn Shihab (one of the narrators) said, "I think (and Allaah knows better), that the purpose of his stay was that the women might leave before the men who had finished their prayer."[27]
اللَّهُمَّ وفقْنا لِمَا وَفَّقتَ القومَ واغْفِر لَنَا ولِوَالديْنا ولجميع المسلمينَ برحمتِكَ يا أرحم الرَّاحمين وصلَّى الله وسلَّم على نبينَا محمدٍ وآلِهِ وصحبِهِ أجمعين.
O Allaah! Forgive us, and forgive our parents with your Mercy, O Most Gracious, Most Merciful. And peace and blessings upon Prophet Muhammad, his family and his companions.[28]


Notes:
[1] The Shaikh رحمه الله is referring to the following Hadeeth:

«أول ما يحاسب به العبد يوم القيامة صلاته فإن أكملها كتبت له نافلة فإن لم يكن أكملها قال الله سبحانه لملائكته انظروا هل تجدون لعبدي من تطوع فأكملوا بها ما ضيع من فريضته ثم تؤخذ الأعمال على حسب ذلك»

On the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “The first of his actions for which a servant of Allaah will be held accountable on the Day of Resurrection will be his prayers. If they are in order, then he will have prospered and succeeded: and if they are wanting, then he will have failed and lost. If there is something defective in his obligatory prayers, the Lord (glorified and exalted be He) will say: See if My servant has any supererogatory prayers with which may be completed that which was defective in his obligatory prayers. Then the rest of his actions will be judged in like fashion.” [Sunan Tirmidhee (413), al-Nasa’ee (464, 465, 466), and Ibn Majah (1181) from Tameem al-Daree and authenticated by Shaikh al-Albaanee]

[2] The Shaikh رحمه الله is referring to the following Hadeeth:

«إن الله قال : من عادى لي وليا فقد آذنته بالحرب ، وما تقرب إلي عبدي بشيء أحب إلي مما افترضت عليه ، وما يزال عبدي يتقرب إلي بالنوافل حتى أحبه ، فإذا أحببته : كنت سمعه الذي يسمع به ، وبصره الذي يبصر به ، ويده التي يبطش بها ، ورجله التي يمشي بها ، وإن سألني لأعطينه ، ولئن استعاذني لأعيذنه ، وما ترددت عن شيء أنا فاعله ترددي عن نفس المؤمن ، يكره الموت وأنا أكره مساءته»

Narrated Abu Hurairah that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Allaah said: “Whosoever shows enmity to someone devoted to Me, I shall be at war with him. My servant draws not near to Me with anything more loved by Me than the religious duties I have enjoined upon him, and My servant continues to draw near to Me with supererogatory works so that I shall love him. When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his seeing with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him, and were he to ask Me for refuge, I would surely grant him it. I do not hesitate about anything as much as I hesitate about [seizing] the soul of My faithful servant: he hates death and I hate hurting him.” [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (6502)]

[3] Saheeh Muslim (1163).

[4] Sunan al-Tirmidhee (2485) and Ibn Majah (1105, 2648) both on the authority of `Abdullaah bin Sallaam. Ibn Majah (573) also reported on the authority of Sa`eed al-Khudree. And authenticated by Shaikh al-Albaanee.

[5] Abu Dawood (1422) and al-Nasa’ee (1711) both reported on the authority of Abu Ayoob al-Ansaaree. And authenticated by Shaikh al-Albaanee:

«الوتر حق على كل مسلم فمن أحب أن يوتر بخمس فليفعل ومن أحب أن يوتر بثلاث فليفعل ومن أحب أن يوتر بواحدة فليفعل»

“The Witr is a duty upon every Muslim so if anyone wishes to observe it with five Raka`aat, he may do so; if anyone wishes to observe it with three, he may do so; and if anyone wishes to observe it with one, he may do so.”

[6] Ibid.

[7] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (946).

[8] Refer point [5].

[9] Saheeh Muslim (737).

[10] Musnad Ahmad (25947), al-Nasa’ee (1713, 1714), Ibn Majah (1192) and authenticated by Shaikh al-Albaanee.

[11] Musnad Ahmad, Saheeh Muslim (746).

[12] Saheeh Muslim [736].

[13] Al-Bukhaaree (1147) and Muslim (738).

[14] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (702, 704) and Muslim (466).

[15] Saheeh Muslim (467).

[16] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (37) and Muslim (759).

[17] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (1129) and Muslim (761).

[18] Abu Dawood (1375), Ibn Majah (1100), al-Nasaa’ee (1604), Tirmdhee (806) and authenticated by Shaikh al-Albaanee.

[19] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (1147, 2013) and Muslim (738).

[20] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (1138) and Muslim (764).

[21] Muwattaa of Imaam Maalik (253) and authenticated by Shaikh al-Albaanee and he said the chain of narration is the most authentic “Saheeh Jiddan”.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Saheeh al-Bukharee (900) and Muslim (442). In the Sunan Abu Dawood (565) it is: “Do not prevent the female servants of Allaah from visiting the Masaajid of Allaah, but they may go out (to the Masjid) having not perfumed themselves.” And it is authenticated by Shaikh al-Albaanee.

[24] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (324, 980) and Muslim (883).

[25] Abu Dawood reported on the authority of Asmaa' bint Abu Bakr رضي الله عنها: I heard the Apostle of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم say: “One of you (i.e. the women) who believes in Allaah and in the Last Day should not raise her head until the men raise their heads (after prostration) lest they should see the private parts of men.”

[26] Saheeh Muslim (440).

[27] Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (870).

[28] From the lessons of Shaikh Al-`Uthaymeen رحمه الله: “مجالس شهر الرمضان

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