Sunday, June 26, 2011

Know the Companions #5 - `Abdullaah bin `Abbas رضي الله عنه


بـسـم الله والحـمـد لله والـصلاة والـسـلام عــلى رسـول الله، وبـعـد

HIS NAME:
He is the Ink of the Ummah, the ocean of knowledge, the jurist of his time, the Imaam of Tafseer, Abu al-`Abbaas, `Abdullaah رضي الله عنه, the son of the uncle of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم – al-`Abbaas رضي الله عنه, bin `Abd al-Muttalib (Shaibah bin Haashim).


His mother was Umm al-Fadhl Lubaabah رضي الله عنها bint al-Haarith bin Hazn.

His aunt was the wife of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, Umm al-Mu’mineen, Maimoonah bint al-Haarith رضي الله عنها.

Abu `Abdullaah bin Mandah said: “His (Ibn `Abbaas) mother was Umm al-Fadhl, the sister of Umm al-Mu’mineen, Maimoonah.

He was born in Makkah in al-Sha`b - when the Quraish had boycotted the Muslims - three years before Hijra (others say he was born a year or two before Hijrah).

He had many children. The eldest of them was al-`Abbaas, after whom he was given the Kunya (nickname) Abu al-`Abbaas, his youngest son was `Ali. His other children were Al-Fadhl, Muhammad, `Ubaidullaah, Lubaabah and Asmaa’.


HIS MIGRATION:

Ibn `Abbaas migrated with his parents to Madeenah in the year of the conquest (only a year before the Prophet’s death), even though he had accepted Islaam before that. It has been authentically reported from him that he said: “My mother and I were among the weak and oppressed. I was from among the children, and my mother from among the women.” [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (1357, 4587)]

Narrated Ibn Abi Mulaikah: Ibn `Abbaas recited: {Except the weak ones among men, women and children.} [Surah al-Nisaa; (4):98] and said, "My mother and I were among those whom Allaah had excused." [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (4588)]

Ibn 'Abbaas said, "Allaah's Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم died when I was a boy of ten years…” [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (5035), Musnad Ahmad (4/206)]

Others say he was 13 years old when the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم had died.


THE PROPHET’s PRAYER FOR HIM:

Narrated Ibn Abbaas: Once the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم embraced me and said, "O Allaah! Bestow on him the knowledge of the Book (Qur'aan)." [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (75)]

In another narration he صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "O Allaah, teach him wisdom (i.e. the understanding of the knowledge of Qur'aan)." [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree]

`Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas is reported to have said that he saw Jibreel عليه السلام twice, and the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم supplicated for him twice. [Tirmidhee # 3822. It has been graded as weak by Shaikh al-Albaanee in Dha`eef al-Tirmidhee, and in Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh (6108)]

In a narration it is reported that Ibn `Abbaas said that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم supplicated twice for him for increase in wisdom. [Fadhaa’il al-Sahaabah of Imaam Ahmad (1650) and it is weak]

Ibn `Umar رضي الله عنه said: “`Umar رضي الله عنه used to call `Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas to come close to him and used to say: ‘I saw that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم called you one day and passed his hand over your head and did Taffl on you (the act of blowing the air with some spit in it), and said: ‘O Allaah give him the understanding of the religion and teach him the interpretation (of al-Qur’aan).’’” [Ibn al-Katheer in ‘al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah’ (8/299), and Ibn Hajr in ‘Tahdheeb al-Tahdheeb’ (5/279) and said there is a weakness in its chain – but part of it is in al-Saheeh]

`Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas said: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was in the house of (Umm al-Mu’mineen) Maimoonah, so I put (a container of water) for him to make Wudhoo (after waking up) in the night. So Maimoonah said to him: “O Messenger of Allaah! `Abdullaah has put this here for you.” He said: “O Allaah give him the understanding of the religion and teach him the interpretation (of al-Qur’aan).”  [Musnad Ahmad (5/15 & 41). Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albaanee in al-Saheehah (2589)]

In another narration Ibn `Abbaas said: I was in the house of my aunt Maimoonah رضي الله عنها, and I put (a container of water) for the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وسلم purification. He صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Who put this here?” She said: “`Abdullaah.” He said: “O Allaah give him the understanding of the religion and teach him the interpretation (of of al-Qur’aan).” [Authenticated by Shaikh Muqbil in ‘Saheeh Dalaail al-Nubuwah’ (245) and he said it is as per the condition of Muslim]

`Abdullaah Ibn `Abbaas said: I came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم in the last part of the night and started praying behind him. He grabbed me by my hand and pulled me (near to him) and made me stand in line with him. So, when he got busy in his prayer, I moved back. When he finished his prayer he said to me: “What is the matter that I made you stand in line with me and you moved back?” I said: “O Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم, how can it occur to a man to stand in line with you in prayer while you are the Messenger of Allaah and Allaah provides for you?” And this (saying of mine) amazed him and he supplicated to Allaah to increase me in knowledge and understanding…” [Musnad Ahmad (5/25), al-Haakim (3/534), al-Haakim said it is Saheeh as per the condition of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim and al-Dhahabee agreed with him.  Shaikh al-Albaanee also graded this Hadeeth as “Saheeh” in al-Saheehah (6/174) and agreed with al-Haakim. Also authenticated by Shaikh Muqbil in “Saheeh al-Musnad” (596)]


HIS KNOWLEDGE:

He accompanied the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم when he was still 30 months old (but could only migrate much later), and narrated from him many Ahaadeeth, as well as from `Umar, `Ali, Mu`aadh bin Jabal, his father al-`Abbaas, `Abdul-Rahmaan bin `Auf, Abu Sufyaan Sakhr bin Harb, Abu Dhar, Ubai bin Ka`b, Zaid bin Thaabit and more.

He learned the recitation of the Qur’aan from Ubai bin Ka`b and Zaid bin Thaabit.

Those who learned from him were Mujaahid, Sa`eed bin Jubair, and more.

Those who reported from him were Anas bin Maalik, Ibn `Umar, his own son `Ali, and the son of his brother - `Abdullaah bin Ma`bad, his freed slaves - `Ikrimah and Kuraib, his brother Katheer bin al`Abbaas, Abu al-Tufail, Abu Umamah bin Sahl, `Urwah bin Zubair, Tawoos, `Ali bin al-Hussain, Sa`eed bin Jubair, Mujaahid, Ibn Sireen, Ibn Abi Mulaikah, Dhahaak bin Mazaahim and many more.

In “al-Tahdheeb”, it is mentioned that those who narrated from him reaches 203 individuals.

Ibn Hazm said in his book “al-Ihkaam” that Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Moosaa bin Yaqoob bin al-Ma’moon, one of the scholars of Islaam, collected the Fatawa of Ibn `Abbaas in 20 volumes.


HIS EAGERNESS TO SEEK KNOWLEDGE:

`Abdullaah ibn `Abbaas said: After the death of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, I told a person (from the Ansaar), “Let us learn from the companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم as they are many.” He replied back: “By Allaah! It is amazing O Ibn `Abbaas. Do you feel that the people are in your need while you still see that the companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم (around you)?” So I overlooked his saying and went in pursuit, and followed the companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. (It happened that) I came to know that one of the persons has heard a Hadeeth from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. I went to him during the time of the afternoon siesta and spread my cloak in front of his door. The wind blew dust on me (as I sat waiting for him). Coming out of his house and seeing me in that condition he said: “O cousin of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم! What's the matter with you? If you had sent for me I would have come to you.” I said: “I am the one who should come to you, for knowledge is sought, it just does not come (on its own).” I asked him about the Hadeeth and learnt from him. Later on, after the demise of the companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, that (Ansaari) man used to see me and that the people were surrounding me and were dependent upon me (for knowledge); he used to say: “He is more clever than me.” [Majma` al-Zawaaid (9/280)]

Tawus reported that Ibn `Abbaas said: “For every command (issue which I didn’t know), I used to ask 30 (different) Companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.” [Siyar A`laam al-Nubalaa’ of al-Dhahabee (3/344)]

Al-Sha`bee reported: Zaid bin Thaabit رضي الله عنه mounted his ride, Ibn `Abbaas came and grabbed the bridle of the ride. Zaid said to him: O cousin of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, don’t do that. Ibn `Abbaas said: This is how we were commanded to be with our scholars. So, Zaid bin Thaabit kissed the hand of Ibn `Abbaas and said this is how we were commanded to do with the “Ahl al-Bait” of our Prophet.


HIS KNOWLEDGE & STATUS:

Laith bin Abi Sulaim said: I said to Tawoos: Why did you stay with this young lad (i.e. Ibn `Abbaas) and left the older companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم?! He said: I saw 70 people from amongst the companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, that when they had an issue would seek advice from Ibn `Abbaas.

`Alee bin Abu Taalib رضي الله عنه made Ibn `Abbaas the Ameer (leader) of the people of al-Basrah. He left al-Basrah before the assassination of `Alee. He had participated with `Alee in the battle of Siffeeen.

Yahya bin Sa`eed said that when Zaid bin Thaabit رضي الله عنه died, Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه said: “The ink of this Ummah has died and I hope Allaah will make Ibn `Abbaas his successor.” And `Amr bin Habshi said: I asked Ibn `Umar رضي الله عنه about an Ayah (of the Qur’aan), he said: “Go to Ibn `Abbaas and ask him, for verily he knows better than those remaining (today) about what Allaah تعالى had revealed upon Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم.”

Ibn Taymiyah mentioned in Majmoo` al-Fataawa (3/416) that Mu`awiyah رضي الله عنه said to Ibn `Abbaas: “Are you upon the way of `Alee رضي الله عنه or upon the way of `Uthmaan رضي الله عنه?” Ibn `Abbaas said: “I am neither upon the way of `Alee nor upon the way of `Uthmaan. Rather I am upon the way of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم.”

Taawus said: I have not seen anyone more strict in respecting the prohibitions of Allaah than Ibn `Abbaas.

Narrated Ibn `Abbaas: 'Umar رضي الله عنه used to make me sit with the elderly men who had fought in the Battle of Badr. Some of them felt it (did not like that) and said to 'Umar "Why do you bring in this boy to sit with us while we have sons like him?" 'Umar replied, "Because of what you know of his position (i.e. his religious knowledge.)" One day 'Umar called me and made me sit in the gathering of those people; and I think that he called me just to show them (my religious knowledge). 'Umar then asked them (in my presence). "What do you say about the interpretation of the Statement of Allaah: {When comes Help of Allaah (to you O, Muhammad against your enemies) and the conquest (of Mecca).} [Surah al-Nasr (110):1] Some of them said, "We are ordered to praise Allaah and ask for His forgiveness when Allaah's Help and the conquest (of Mecca) comes to us." Some others kept quiet and did not say anything. On that, 'Umar asked me, "Do you say the same, O Ibn 'Abbaas?" I replied, "No." He said, 'What do you say then?" I replied, "That is the sign of the death of Allaah's Apostle which Allaah informed him of. Allaah said: {(O Muhammad) When comes the Help of Allaah (to you against your enemies) and the conquest (of Mecca) (which is the sign of your death). You should celebrate the praises of your Lord and ask for His Forgiveness, and He is the One Who accepts the repentance and forgives.} On that 'Umar said, "I do not know anything about it other than what you have said." [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (4294, 4969, 4970)]

Narrated Sa`eed bin Jubair: About Ibn 'Abbaas: 'Umar bin Al-Khattaab رضي الله عنه used to treat Ibn 'Abbaas very favorably 'Abdur Rahmaan bin 'Auf رضي الله عنه said to him. "We also have sons that are equal to him (but you are partial to him.)" Umar said, "It is because of his knowledge." Then 'Umar asked Ibn 'Abbaas about the interpretation of the verse: {When comes Help of Allaah (to you O, Muhammad against your enemies) and the conquest (of Mecca).} [Surah al-Nasr (110):1] Ibn 'Abbaas said. "It portended the death of Allaah's Apostle, which Allaah had informed him of." 'Umar said, "I do not know from this verse but what you know." [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree]

Al-Zuhree said: The Muhaajiroon (the emigrants) said to `Umar رضي الله عنه: Should we not invite our children (to this gathering) as you invite Ibn `Abbaas? He said: This child is mature-minded, and he has an inquisitive tongue, and an intelligent mind. [Siyar A`laam al-Nubalaa’]

Ibn `Uyainah reported from Abu Bakr al-Hadhlee that Hasan (al-Basree) said: Ibn `Abbaas had a (high) position in Islaam, and he had a (high) position in al-Qur’aan, and he used to climb our minbar (pulpit) and used to recite (Surah) al-Baqarah and aal-`Imraan, and used to explain each ayah. And `Umar, whenever he used to remember him (Ibn `Abbaas) said: He is a matured child, who has an inquisitive tongue, and an intelligent heart.  [Siyar A`laam al-Nubalaa’ (3/345)]

Sa`eed bin Jubair said: `Umar رضي الله عنه used to say to Ibn `Abbaas: You have learned the knowledge that which we did not. [Siyar A`laam al-Nubalaa’ (3/345)]

Talhah bin `Ubaydullaah said: Ibn `Abbaas was given the comprehension, the understanding, and the knowledge (of the religion) and I never saw `Umar giving preference to anyone over him (in knowledge).

Masrooq reported that `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood رضي الله عنه said: Had Ibn `Abbaas attained the same age as we were (at the time of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم), none of us would have been comparable to him. And he also said: Yes, the “Tarjumaan al-Qur’aan” (translator/interpreter of al-Qur’aan) is Ibn `Abbaas. [Siyar A`laam al-Nubalaa (3/347), Fath al-Baaree (7/126) and Authenticated by Shaikh al-Albaanee in “al-`ilm” of Abi Khaithumah (48) and it is as per the condition of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]

`Ikrimah said that Mu`aawiyah رضي الله عنه said to him: By Allaah, your master (Ibn `Abbaas) had more comprehension (of this religion) than those died and those who still live.

It is reported that `Aishah رضي الله عنها said: The most knowledgeable about Hajj among those who are alive, is Ibn `Abbaas.

Tawoos said: I have not seen anyone more god-fearing than Ibn `Umar and more knowledgeable than Ibn `Abbaas.

Mujaahid said: Ibn `Abbaas was called an ocean because of his extensive knowledge.

Mujaahid said: I have never heard a fatwa better than the fatwa of Ibn `Abbaas, except when one says, “The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said…”

A`mash reported that Abu Waail said: Ibn `Abbaas delivered a sermon while he was the leader of the pilgrims in Hajj. He recited Surah al-Noor from the beginning; so he began reciting it and explaining it. I had never ever before seen or heard anyone speaking better than him; and had the Persians, the Romans, and the Turks listened to him, they would have accepted Islaam. [Siyar A`laam al-Nubalaa’ (3/351)]

Masrooq said: Whenever I used to see Ibn `Abbaas, I used to say: the most handsome of people; and whenever he talked, he was the most eloquent of them; and whenever he spoke, he was the most knowledgeable of them.

Ibn `Abbaas said: My father and I were with the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, and it was as if he (the Prophet) was ignoring (to talk) to my father. So we came out. He (my father) said: “Didn’t you see how your cousin was ignoring me?” I said: “There was a man and he was busy with him.” He (my father) said: “Was there a person with him?!” I said: Yes. So we went back to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and my father said: “O Messenger Allaah, I was speaking with `Abdullaah about such and such and he informed me that there was a man with whom you were busy. So, was there anyone with you?” The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Did you see him O `Abdullaah?” I said: “Yes.” He said: “That was Jibreel and he was the one who kept me busy from you.” [Musnad Ahmad (4/236, 4/305) and authenticatedby Shaikh Ahmad Shaakir. Shaikh Muqbil also graded this Hadeeth as Saheeh in Saheeh al-Musnad (623, 644)]


HIS PHYSICAL FEATURES:

He was handsome, of white complexion, had a good height, of dignified nature, mature-minded and intelligent.

Masrooq said: Whenever I used to see Ibn `Abbaas, I used to say: the most handsome of people; and whenever he talked, he was the most eloquent of them; and whenever he spoke, he was the most knowledgeable of them.

Ibn Juraij said: “We were sitting with `Ataa’ in Masjid al-Haraam and we mentioned about Ibn `Abbaas. So, `Ataa’ said: ‘I have never seen the moon on the night of 14th (of every month when it is full) except that I recall the (beauty) of the face of Ibn `Abbaas.’”

`Ikrimah said: “When Ibn `Abbaas used to pass by the people on the street, women on both side of the wall used to say: ‘Was it a perfume (musk) that passed by us or was it Ibn `Abbaas?’”


HIS END:


Ibn `Abbaas became blind in the later part of his life.

Ibn `Abbaas said: I passed by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and he was conversing with a person in a white garment and he (resembled) Dahiyah bin Khalifah al-Kalbee, whereas actually he was Jibreel عليه السلام, and I didn’t know that and I didn’t greet him. Jibreel عليه السلام said: O Muhammad who is he. He said: “He is my cousin, Ibn `Abbaas.” He said: What untidy clothes he is wearing, and had he greeted us, we would have replied to his greetings. When I came back to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, he said: “What prevented you from greeting him?” I said: May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! I saw you were conversing with Dahiyah bin Khalifah, and I did not like to interrupt your conversation. He said: “Did you see him?” I said: Yes. He said: “Your eye sight will be taken and it will only be returned back to you upon your death.” `Ikrimah said: When Ibn `Abbaas died, and was on his deathbed that a extremely white bird came and mixed with his shroud. `Ikrimah said: This was the fulfillment of the prophecy of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. When he was put in his grave, a voice was heard near his grave reciting: {"O (you) the one in (complete) rest and satisfaction! "Come back to your Lord, – well-pleased (yourself) and well-pleasing (to Him)! "Enter you then among My (honored) slaves, "And enter you My Paradise!"} [Surah al-Fajr (89): 27-30] [Majma` al-Zawaaid (9/279) but in its chain is a majhool (unknown) person, so it is weak]

Husain bin Waqid al-Marozee reported that Abu al-Zubair said: When Ibn `Abbaas died, a white bird came and entered his shroud.

Al-Ajlah reported the same from Abu al-Zubair and added: The people interpreted it to be his knowledge (which has departed with his death).

`Ataa’ bin al-Saaib reported the same from Sa`eed bin Jubair and added: It was never seen again, i.e. the bird.

Hammaad bin Salamah reported from Yu`laa bin `Ataa that Jubair bin Abi `Ubaid said: Ibn `Abbaas died in al-Taaif. So when they were taking his coffin, an extremely white bird came and mixed with the coffin. Thereafter, nobody saw it again; and the people used to say that it was his knowledge.

Imaam al-Dhahabee said in Siyar A`laam al-Nubalaa that this has been reported in Mutawaatir form (i.e. a large number of people have reported this). This was also reported by Ibn Abi Haatim, Ibn Katheer in his Tafseer, Fadhaail al-Sahaabah of Imaam Ahmad, Majma` al-Zawaaid and others.

`Alee ibn al-Madeenee said: Ibn `Abbaas died in the year 68 or 67 Hijri.

Al-Waqidee, al-Haitham and Abu Na`eem said: he died in the year 68 Hijri, and he was 71 years old.

He has narrated 1660 Ahaadeeth. Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim agreed upon 75 Ahaadeeth. Al-Bukhaaree individually narrated 120 Ahaadeeth. Muslim individually narrated 9 Ahaadeeth.


References:
الإصابة في تمييز الصحابة – لإبن الحجر الأسقلاني
أسد الغابة في معرفة الصحابة – لإبن الأثير
الاستيعاب في معرفة الأصحاب - لإبن عبد البر
سير اعلام النبلاء – إمام الذهبي

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